Transracial and Transcultural Adoption
How you can prepare yourself for a transracial or transcultural
How you can help your child to become a stable, happy,
healthy individual with a strong sense of racial or cultural identity
Other sources of information
Transracial or transcultural adoption means placing a child who
is of one race or ethnic group with adoptive parents of another
race or ethnic group. In the United States these terms usually refer
to the placement of children of color or children from another country
with Caucasian adoptive parents.
People choose to adopt transracially or transculturally for a variety
of reasons. Fewer young Caucasian children are available for adoption
in the United States than in years past, and some adoption agencies
that place Caucasian children do not accept singles or applicants
older than 40. Some prospective adoptive parents feel connected
to a particular race or culture because of their ancestry or through
personal experiences such as travel or military service. Others
simply like the idea of reaching out to children in need, no matter
where they come from.
Adoption experts have different opinions about this kind of adoption.
Some say that children available for adoption should always be placed
with a family with at least one parent of the same race or culture
as the child. This is so the child can develop a strong racial or
cultural identity. These people say that adoption agencies with
a strong commitment to working with families of color and that are
flexible in their procedures are very successful in recruiting "same
race" families. Other experts say that race should not be considered
at all when selecting a family for a child. To them, a loving family
that can meet the needs of a particular child is all that matters.
Still others suggest that after an agency works very hard to recruit
a same-race family for a certain period of time but does not find
one, the child should be placed with a loving family of any race
or culture who can meet the child's needs.
Despite the experts' differing opinions, there are many transracial
and transcultural families, and many more will be formed. If you
are or wish to be a parent in one of these families, this fact sheet
will help you by answering two questions: (1) What should you do
to prepare for adopting a child of a race or culture different from
yours? and (2) After adoption, what can you do to help your child
become a stable, happy, healthy individual, with a strong sense
of cultural and racial identity?
How You Can Prepare for
a Transracial or Transcultural Adoption
Preparation for adoption is important for anyone thinking about
adopting a child. It is even more important for parents considering
transracial or transcultural adoption because it will introduce
you to all aspects of adoptive parenthood, help you learn about
adoption issues, and help you identify the type of child you wish
to parent. Any adoption agency that conducts and supervises transracial
or transcultural adoptions should provide this important service.
If you are undertaking an independent adoption, you should seek
counseling and training in these areas. You should also read as
many articles and books as you can on the subject. (See the resource
list at the end of this fact sheet.)
The following sections describe some issues to consider as you prepare
for a transracial or transcultural adoption.
Examine Your Beliefs and Attitudes About Race and Ethnicity
While you may think you know yourself and your family members very
well, it is important to examine your beliefs and attitudes about
race and ethnicity before adopting a child of another race or culture.
Try to think if you have made any assumptions about people because
of their race or ethnic group. There are two reasons for this exercise:
(1) to check yourself -- to be sure this type of adoption will be
right for you; and (2) to prepare to be considered "different."
When you adopt a child of another race or culture, it is not only
the child who is different. Your family becomes a "different"
family. Some people are comfortable with difference. To them, difference
is interesting, wonderful, and special. Other people are not so
comfortable with difference, and are scared by it. Thus, some friends,
family members, acquaintances, and even strangers will rush to your
side to support you, while others may make negative comments and
stare. During the pre-adoption phase, you should think about how
you will respond to the second group in a way that will help your
child feel good about himself or herself. (We'll give you some ideas
a little later.)
When your child is young, an extra hug and a heart-to-heart talk
might be all it takes to help him or her through a difficult situation.
While the hugs and the heart-to-heart talks never stop, as your
child gets older, you and your child will need more specific coping
skills to deal with the racial bias you might face together as a
family. Are you ready to fully understand these issues and help
your family deal with whatever happens?
Think About Your Lifestyle
Before considering a transracial or transcultural adoption, take
a look at your current lifestyle. Do you already live in an integrated
neighborhood, so that your child will be able to attend an integrated
school? If not, would you consider moving to a new neighborhood?
Do you already have friends of different races and ethnic groups?
Do you visit one another's homes regularly? Do you attend multicultural
festivals? Do you enjoy different kinds of ethnic foods? How much
of a leap would it be to start doing some of these things?
It is important for children of color growing up with Caucasian
parents to be around adults and children of many ethnic groups,
and particularly, to see adult role models who are of the same race
or ethnic group. These people can be their friends, teach them about
their ethnic heritage, and as they mature, tell them what to expect
when they are an adult in your community. Can you make these types
of relationships available for your child?
Consider Adopting Siblings
It is always good for siblings to be adopted together. It is no
different in the case of transracial or transcultural adoption.
Siblings who are adopted together have the security of seeing another
person in the family who looks like them. They are able to bring
a part of their early history and birth family with them to their
adoptive family, which may help them adjust better. And with internationally
adopted children, being together might mean they will be able to
keep up their native language.
Let's say, then, that you have examined your beliefs and attitudes
about race and ethnicity. You have thought about your lifestyle
and considered adopting siblings. You are sure you want to adopt
a child from another race or culture. What comes next?
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How You Can Help
Your Child To Become a Stable, Happy, Healthy Individual With a
Strong Sense of Racial or Cultural Identity
The seven parenting techniques listed below were compiled from books
and articles on adoption and by interviewing experts in transracial
and transcultural adoption. Some of these "techniques"
are common sense and apply to all adopted children. However, with
transracially or transculturally adopted children, these techniques
are especially important.
Parents in a transracial or transcultural family should do the following:
- Become intensely invested in parenting;
- Tolerate no racially or ethnically biased remarks;
- Surround yourselves with supportive family and friends;
- Celebrate all cultures;
- Talk about race and culture;
- Expose your child to a variety of experiences so that he or
she develops physical and intellectual skills that build self-esteem;
- Take your child to places where most of the people present
are from his or her race or ethnic group.
The next sections provide more information on these techniques.
Become Intensely Invested in Parenting
Dr. Larry Schreiber, former president of the North American Council
on Adoptable Children (NACAC), an umbrella organization for a large
number of adoptive parent support groups in the United States and
Canada, wrote a column about his transracial adoption experience
in the Winter 1991 issue of Adoptalk, 1the NACAC newsletter.
He characterizes transracial parenting as a "roller coaster
of exaggerated parenting." As a Caucasian adoptive father of
African-American, Latino, Korean, Cambodian, East Indian, and Caucasian
children, he describes transracial parenting as the most joyous
experience of his life. He admits that he doesn't really know what
it is like to endure the racially-biased name-calling that his children
have experienced, but he was always there for them when they needed
to be comforted and to help them get through those difficult times.
Dr. Schreiber says that transracial parenting has both complicated
and enriched his life. He had to work hard to help his children
develop their cultural pride and self-esteem in a world that sometimes
does not understand or is unkind to people from different cultures.
However, he believes his children did overcome these difficulties
and were able to develop positive cultural identities, mostly because
of the help his family received from adoptive parent support groups
and from other adults of the same cultural groups as his children.
Ms. RoAnne Elliott is another experienced adoptive parent in an
interracial family who has written about the importance of investing
in parenting. An African-American woman, Ms. Elliott encourages
parents in transracial families to empower themselves and believe
strongly that their family belongs together. She writes, "You
need the firm knowledge in your heart and in your mind that you
are the best parent for your children. This empowerment is key,
since you can't parent well if you don't feel confident, competent,
and entitled to do so."2 She says that being in
an interracial family is the opportunity of a lifetime, allowing
you to embark on "a journey of personal transformation, growing
in your ability to nurture your children along the way. This involves
an alert awareness of difference and an optimistic expectation that
cultural differences among us will lead to rewarding personal connections
The message, then, is that transracial parenting is not laid-back,
catch-as-catch-can parenting. According to these two experienced
adoptive parents, the demands are great, but so are the rewards.
Tolerate No Racially or Ethnically Biased Remarks
As adoptive parents in an interracial or intercultural family, you
should refuse to tolerate any kind of racially or ethnically biased
remark made in your presence. This includes remarks about your child's
race or ethnic group, other races and ethnic groups, or any other
characteristic such as gender, religion, age and physical or other
disability. Make it clear that it is not okay to make fun of people
who are different, and it is not okay to assume that all people
of one group behave the same way.4 Teach your children
how to handle these remarks, by saying, for instance, "I find
your remark offensive. Please don't say that type of thing again,"
or "Surely you don't mean to be critical, you just don't have
experience with . . ." or "You couldn't be deliberately
saying such an inappropriate comment in front of a child. You must
mean something else."
Try to combat the remarks while giving the person a chance to back
off or change what has been said. This way you will teach your child
to stand up to bias without starting a fight -- which could put
your child at risk. In addition, by being gracious and giving others
a chance to overcome their bias/ignorance, you can help to change
their beliefs and attitudes over time. Positive exchanges about
race will always be more helpful than negative ones.
Surround Yourselves With Supportive Family and Friends
While you were thinking about adopting transracially or transculturally,
did you find some people in your circle of family and friends who
were especially supportive of your plans to become a multicultural
family? If so, surround yourself with these people! In addition,
seek out other adoptive families, other transracial or multicultural
families, and other members of your child's racial or ethnic group.
You will be surprised by how helpful many people will want to be,
whether it is to show you how to cook an ethnic dish or teach you
some words in their language.
According to Ms. RoAnne Elliott, "You need a supportive community
comprised of many races -- those who will be role models and provide
inspiration, those who will stimulate your thinking, those who fill
your desire for cultural diversity, and those who will challenge
you in constructive and respectful ways.5
Celebrate All Cultures
As a multicultural family, you should value all cultures. Teach
your child that every ethnic group has something worthwhile to contribute,
and that diversity is this country's and your family's strength.
For example, you might give your Korean daughter a Korean doll,
but you might also start a collection for her of dolls of many different
racial and ethnic groups. If your child is from South America, go
to the Latino festival in your town, but also visit the new Native-American
art exhibit, eat at the Greek fair, and dance at the Polish dance
hall. Incorporate the art, music, drama, literature, clothing, and
food of your child's ethnic group and others into your family's
daily life.6 Invite friends from other cultures to celebrate
your holidays and special occasions, and attend their events as
The area of religion brings up special concerns. You may wish to
take your child to a place of worship in your community where most
of the members are from the same ethnic group as your child; for
example, you could bring your East Indian child to a Hindu temple
or your Russian child to a Russian Orthodox church. What an opportunity
to meet people of his ethnic group, find adult role models, and
learn the customs of his heritage! However, before you do this,
be sure you could be supportive if your child decides to practice
that religion. If you have your heart set on raising your child
in your own family's religion - one that is different from the religion
practiced in the place of worship you will visit -- tell your child
that the visit is for a cultural, not religious, purpose or perhaps
decide not to visit at all. Practically speaking, you can impose
your religious practice on your child for only a few years. As an
adult, your child will ultimately decide whether to practice any
religion at all, and whether it will be one that people of his or
her heritage often practice, your family's religion, or yet another
one that he or she chooses.
While it is important to teach your child that differences among
people are enriching, it is also important to point out similarities.
One expert suggests that in an adoptive family the ratio should
be two similarities for each difference.7 For instance,
to a young child you might say, "Your skin is darker than Daddy's,
but you like to play music, just like he does, and you both love
strawberry ice cream." As much as you want to celebrate your
child's distinctive features, he or she also needs to feel a sense
of belonging in the family.
Talk About Race and Culture
How has race or culture defined you? What is life like for a Latino
person in America? What is life like for a Caucasian person? An
African-American person? An Asian person? How are persons of different
ethnic groups treated by police officers, restaurant employees,
social organizations, or government agencies? What do you think
about interracial dating and marriage? As a multicultural family,
you need to address these and other racial matters.
Talk about racial issues, even if your child does not bring up the
subject. Use natural opportunities, such as a television program
or newspaper article that talks about race in some way. Let your
child know that you feel comfortable discussing race-the positive
aspects as well as the difficult ones. On the positive side, a child
of a certain race may be given preferential treatment or special
attention. On the other hand, even a young child needs to know that
while your family celebrates difference, other families do not know
many people who are different. These families are sometimes afraid
of what they do not know or understand, and may react at times in
unkind ways. It can be difficult to deal with such issues, especially
when your child is young and does not yet know that some adults
have these negative feelings, but you have to do it. You will help
your child become a strong, healthy adult by preparing him or her
to stand up in the face of ignorance, bias, or adversity.
Stand behind your children if they are the victim of a racial incident
or have problems in your community because of the unkind actions
of others. This does not mean you should fight their battles for
them, but rather support them and give them the tools to deal with
the blows that the world may hand them. Confront racism openly.
Discuss it with your friends and family and the supportive multicultural
community with which you associate. Rely on adults of color to share
their insights with both you and your child. Above all, if your
child's feelings are hurt, let him talk about the experience with
you, and acknowledge that you understand.
Ms. Lois Melina,8 a Caucasian adoptive parent of Korean
children and a noted adoption writer, lists five questions for you
to ask your child to help him or her deal with problem situations:
- What happened?
- How did that make you feel?
- What did you say or do when that happened?
- If something like that happens again, do you think you will
deal with it the same way?
- Would you like me to do something?
It is important to leave the choice of your involvement up to your
child. This way, you show that you are available to help, but also
that you have confidence in your child's ability to decide when
your help is needed.
Expose Your Child to a Variety of Experiences so That He
or She Develops Physical and Intellectual Skills That Build Self-Esteem
This parenting technique is important for all children, but it is
especially important for children of color. Children of color need
every tool possible to build their self-esteem. While society has
made strides in overcoming certain biases and forms of discrimination,
there remain many subtle and not-so-subtle color or race-related
messages that are discouraging and harmful to young egos. Be alert
to negative messages that are associated with any race or culture.
Point them out as foolish and untrue. Emphasize that each person
is unique and that we all bring our own individual strengths and
weaknesses into the world. Frequently compliment your child on his
or her strengths. Draw attention to the child's ability to solve
math problems, play ball, dance, play a musical instrument, ride
a bike, take photographs, perform gymnastics, or any other activity
that increases confidence. Self-esteem is built on many small successes
and lots of acknowledgement. A strong ego will be better able to
deal with both the good and the bad elements of society.
As your child gets older, keep in touch with his or her needs: this
might mean buying him or her a few of the in clothes or enrolling
him or her on the popular teams. Stay in tune with your child's
natural skills and talents, and do whatever you can to help him
or her develop them at each age.
Take Your Child to Places Where Most of the People Present
are from His or Her Race or Ethnic Group
If you bring your African-American child to an African-American
church, or your Peruvian child to a Latino festival, your child
will experience being in a group in which the number of people present
of his ethnic group is larger than the number of Caucasians present.
Adoptive family support group events are other places where this
might happen. Children usually enjoy these events very much. If
you adopted a young child from another country, you might consider
taking a trip to that country when the child is older and can understand
what the trip is all about. Many adoptive families who take such
a trip find it to be a wonderful learning experience.9
Another benefit of such an experience is that it might be one of
the few times when you feel what it is like to be in the minority.
This will increase your awareness and ability to understand your
child's experience as a minority individual.
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Other Sources of
Transracial adoption is a "hot" topic in the media and
in adoption circles. There is quite a lot of activity in this area
of adoption practice. We offer the following brief sections for
Where Can I Find Out More About Transracial or Transcultural
The National Adoption Information Clearinghouse (NAIC) often receives
questions about which adoption agencies place children transculturally
or transracially. The answer is twofold. Their names often signal
the kinds of adoptions they conduct (for example, if they have the
word "international" in their name). These agencies are
marked with an asterisk in NAIC's National Adoption Directory. However,
many agencies are not as open about their policy on transracial
adoption because of some of the controversial issues surrounding
this type of adoption. Ask your local adoption agencies about their
policies in this area, especially if you are strongly considering
this type of adoption.
In 1994, transracial adoption was the subject of a bill before Congress
submitted by Senator Howard Metzenbaum of Ohio. After intense debate,
the Multiethnic Placement Act (MEPA) passed both houses of Congress.
One positive outcome of the debate is that people who historically
have been on opposite sides of the question are beginning to reach
some common ground. One point that everyone agrees on is that adults
of all cultures need to work together to help adopted children of
all cultures reach their highest potential.
Although available statistics are rough estimates, several sources
show that the percentage of transracial or transcultural adoptions
in the United States is significant. For example, one source estimates
that 1,000 to 2,000 African-American children are adopted by Caucasian
families each year.10 Data from the Immigration and Naturalization
Service show that U.S. families adopted 7,088 children from other
countries in 1990. This means that there were roughly 8,500 transracial
or transcultural adoptions in 1990. In that same year, there were
almost 119,000 adoptions of all kinds.11 Since approximately
half of the adoptions in any year are stepparent or relative adoptions,
in 1990 there were about 59,500 nonrelative adoptions. The percentage
of transracial/transcultural adoptions (8,500 of 59,500) then, comes
out to more than 14 percent.
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Adopting a child of another race or culture can be a richly rewarding
choice for many families, although there are also many unique challenges
and concerns. Hopefully the information provided in this fact sheet
will provide food for thought and become part of the ongoing discussion
in your home. The resources listed at the end of this fact sheet
should also be helpful.
Written by Debra G. Smith, ACSW, Director of the National Adoption
Information Clearinghouse, 1994.
Abramovitz, Melissa. "Living in a Racially-Mixed Family: A
Question of Attitude." OURS, Jul-Aug 1991, v24 n4, p. 27.
Ahn, Helen Noh. Identity Development in Korean Adolescent Adoptees:
Eriksonian Ego Identity and Racially Ethnic Identity. Berkeley,
CA: University of California School of Social Welfare, 1989.
Barnes, Donna. "Building a Family: One Color at a Time."
AdoptNet, Nov-Dec 1992, v3 n6, pp. 7-8.
Bartholet, Elizabeth. Family Bonds: Adoption and the Politics of
Parenting. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1993.
Bates, J. Douglas. Gift Children: A Story of Race, Family, and Adoption
in a Divided America. New York: Ticknor & Fields, 1993.
Brooks, Dorothy Elizabeth. "Black/White Transracial Adoption:
An Update." OURS, Jul-Aug 1991, v24 n4, pp. 19-21.
Caldwell-Hopper, Kathi. "Adopting Across Lines of Color."
OURS, Jul-Aug 1991, v24 n4, pp. 23-25.
Darden, Edwin. "Biracial and Proud!" F.A.C.E. Facts, Jan-Feb
1991, v14 n3, pp. 10-11.
Elliott, RoAnne. "Can White People Nurture Black Kids Effectively?"
Pact Press, Autumn 1992, v1 n3, p. 8.
F.A.C.E. "How to Keep Racism from Defeating Your Child."
F.A.C.E. Facts, Apr-May 1991, v14 n4, p. 22.
Flango, Victor Eugene and Flango, Carol R. "Adoption Statistics
by State." Child Welfare, May-Jun 1993, v72 n3, pp. 311-319.
Frey, Susan. "Interracial Families." AdoptNet, Jul-Aug
1991, v3 n4, pp. 40-41, 46.
Gilles, Tom and Kroll, Joe. Barriers to Same Race Placement. St.
Paul, MN: North American Council on Adoptable Children, 1991.
McFarlane, Jan. "Self-Esteem in Children of Color: Developmental,
Adoption, and Racial Issues. OURS, Jan-Feb 1992, v25 n1, pp. 24-29.
______________. "Building Self-Esteem in Children and Teenagers
of Color." OURS, May-Jun 1992, v25 n3, pp. 28-33.
McRoy, Ruth G. and Zurcher, Louis A., Jr. Transracial and Inracial
Adoptees. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1983.
Melina, Lois. "Cultural Identity Goes Beyond Ethnic Foods,
Dolls." Adopted Child, Dec 1988, v7 n12, pp. 1-4.
____________. "Transracial Adoptees Can Develop Racial Identity,
Coping Strategies." Adopted Child, Jan 1994, v13 n1, pp. 1-4.
Neal, Leora and Stumph, Al. "Transracial Parenting: If It Happens,
How White Parents and the Black Community Can Work Together."
Adoptalk, Winter 1993, p. 6.
Nelson-Erichsen, Jean and Erichsen, Heino R. Butterflies in the
Wind: Spanish/Indian Children with White Parents. The Woodlands,
TX: Los Niños International Adoption Center, 1992.
O'Rourke, Lisa, Hubbell, Ruth, Goolsby, Sherrell and Smith, Debra.
Washington, DC: National Adoption Information Clearinghouse Fact
Sheet, 1988, revised 1994.
Pederson, Jeff. "Traveling to Your Child's Country of Origin."
OURS, Mar-Apr 1992, v25 n2, pp. 40-42.
Pohl, Constance and Harris, Kathy. Transracial Adoption: Children
and Parents Speak. New York: Franklin Watts, 1992.
Raible, John. "Continuing the Dialogue on Transracial Adoption."
Adoptalk, Summer 1990, p. 5.
Register, Cheri, M.D. "Are Those Kids Yours?" American
Families with Children Adopted from Other Countries. New York: Free
____________________. "Are White People Colorless?" OURS,
Jan-Feb 1994, v27 n1, pp. 32-34.
Richmond, Ann Freeman. "The Transracial Debate: A White Perspective."
Adoptalk, Winter 1992, pp. 16-17.
Schreiber, Larry, M.D. "From the President." Adoptalk,
Winter 1991, p. 2.
Simon, Rita and Altstein, Howard. Adoption, Race, and Identity:
From Infancy Through Adolescence. New York: Praeger, 1992.
Thorp, Judy. "Our Trip to Chicago's Little India." OURS,
May-Jun 1992, v25 n3, pp. 36-38.
Van Gulden, Holly. "Attachment and Bonding in Adoptive Families,"
Workshop at Families Adopting Children Everywhere (F.A.C.E.) Conference,
Towson, Maryland, May 1992.
Adoptive Families Magazine
42 W. 38 Street, Suite 901
New York, New York, 10018
246 S. Cleveland Ave.
Loveland, CO 80537
Fostering Families Today
541 East Garden Drive Unit N
Windsor, CO 80550
3450 Sacramento Street, Ste. 239
San Francisco, CA 94118
North American Council on Adoptable Children
970 Raymond Avenue, Suite 106
St. Paul, MN 55114-1149
Raising Black and Biracial Children
1336 Meadow View Lane, No 1
Lancaster, CA 93534
Latin American Adoptive Families
40 Upland Road
Duxbury, MA 02332
People of Every Stripe
P.O. Box 12505
Portland, OR 97212
Parent Support Groups
Check Utah culture groups on this web site
Pact, an Adoption Alliance
3450 Sacramento St., Ste. 239
San Francisco, CA 94118
American Eyes (VHS; 30 minutes; 1991)
Tells the story of a Korean-born 16-year-old boy named John who
was adopted by a Caucasian American family at the age of 10 months
as he encounters racial prejudice at school and suffers blows to
his self-esteem and cultural identity. The tape touches on a number
of other topics, including America's pluralistic society, minority
rights, and contributions of multiethnic and multiracial groups.
Excellent for support groups of families with teenage children adopted
from other countries. Available from The Media Guild, 11722 Sorrento
Valley Rd., Ste. E, San Diego, CA 92121-9823, (619) 755-9191 or
(800) 886-9191, fax (619) 755-4931. $295.00
A New Life in America (VHS; 10 minutes; 1991)
Explains how and why Korean adoption works in the United States
and what Korean-born children feel and experience as adoptees. Provides
an orientation to adoption as a lifelong experience that is helpful
for prospective adoptive parents, their extended families, young
adoptees, and their classmates. Available from the Children's Home
Society of Minnesota, 2230 Como Ave., St. Paul, MN 55108 (612) 646-6393.
$15.00 (plus $4.00 shipping and handling; Minnesota residents add
6.5% sales tax).
Raising a Child of a Different Race or Ethnic Background (audiocassette;
90 minutes; 1990)
Covers the issues families face when they decide to adopt transracially
or transculturally. Emphasizes the need for families to help their
children develop skills to deal with being minorities and a positive
attitude toward their race or culture. Available from Adopted Child,
P.O. Box 9362, Moscow, ID 83843 (208) 882-1794. $11.00
Transracial Adoption: Now That They Are Grown (audiocassette)
An audiotape of an actual workshop session on transracial adoption
as seen through the eyes and experiences of several adult adoptees.
Facilitated by Barbara Tremitiere, it presents pertinent questions
that help the listener assess the challenges and implications of
transracial adoptions. Available from One Another Adoption Program,
c/o Barbara Tremitiere Ph.D., ACSW, LSW, 50 E. Market St., Hellam,
PA 17406, (717) 600-2059. $10.00 (plus $1.50 shipping and handling).
Winning at Adoption (VHS, 120 minutes; 3 audiocassettes, 60, 45,
and 90 minutes; 1991)
This videotape covers how to select an agency or attorney, specific
strategies for finding a child, making adoption work for both the
adoptive and birth families, and adoption as a lifelong process.
The audiocassettes cover Adoption Readiness,Transcultural/Transracial
Adoptions,Adopting a Child With Special Needs, and About the Birthfamily.
Also includes a 60-page workbook. Package is available from Kinship
Alliance, 513 E. First St., Tustin, CA 92680 (714) 573-8865, fax
(714) 544-5155. $40.00 (plus $5.00 shipping and handling; audiocassettes
available separately for $10.00 each and $2.00 shipping and handling.)
3837 Farragut Avenue
Kensington, MD 20895
Contact: Debbie Riley, Director, Family Resource Center
Program Title: "Transracial Adoption"
Association of Black Social Workers
Child Adoption, Counseling and Referral Service
1969 Madison Ave., #6 DFL
New York, NY 10035-1549
Contact: Leora Neal, Executive Director
Program Title: "If Transracial Parenting Happens, How White
Parents and the African-American Community Can Work Together"
Black Adoption Services/Three Rivers Adoption Council
307 Fourth Ave., Ste. 710
Pittsburgh, PA 15222
Contact: Program Director
Program Title: "Promoting Racial Self-Esteem in Black Children
Who Are Transracially Adopted"
Children's Home Society of Washington
Adoption Resource Center
3300 NE 65th Street
Seattle, WA 98115
(206) 524-6020 or (800) 456-3339
Contact: Training Director
Program Titles: "Interracial Adoption;" "Cross-Cultural
1521 Foxhollow Road
Greensboro, NC 27410
Contacts: Bernard and Joan McNamara, Executive and Associate Directors
Program Title: Transracial Adoption
P.O. Box 90318
Indianapolis, IN 46290-0318
Contact: Patricia Irwin Johnston, Publisher and Educator
Program Titles: "Embracing Difference"; "Opening
Ourselves to New Issues"
Southern Connecticut State University
Department of Counseling and School Psychology
501 Crescent Street
New Haven, CT 06515
Contact: Dr. Nancy Janus, Professor
Program Title: "Adoption Issues Institute"
Linda Yellin and Associates
27600 Farmington Road, Suite 107
Farmington Hills, MI 48334
Contact: Linda Yellin, Director
Program Title: "Education, Information, and Support for Families
Who Adopt Children of a Different Religion or Ethnic Group"
1 Schreiber, p. 2.
2 Elliott, p. 8.
3 Elliott, p. 8.
4 Melina, 1988, p. 2.
5 Elliott, p. 8.
6 Thorp, p. 36.
7 Van Gulden, F.A.C.E Conference Workshop, 1992.
8 Melina, 1988, pp. 3-4.
9 Pederson, p. 42.
10 Brooks, p. 10.
11 Flango and Flango, p. 317.
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